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Descrizione: Draw_landscape_arch_web-279x400

autore

SABRINA WILK

titolo

CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN MANUAL.

DRAWING FOR LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS

editore

DOM publishers

luogo

BERLIN

anno

2014

 

 

lingua

INGLESE

 

 

Argomento e tematiche affrontate

Descrizione: Draw_landscape_arch_web-279x400

Few other professions can match landscape architecture's requirement graphically to represent and communicate so much content and so many ideas. From large-scale master-plans and strategic visions, design concepts and outdoor experiences, to specific vegetation and precise construction details - at some point everything has to be explained on paper. This handbook focuses on two areas which, even in the age of digital media, are still staples of the profession: orthographic projections and blackline drawings. Intended to be both instructional and inspirational, this book covers the basics of landscape architectural representation, hand drawing and sketching in an easy to understand way, encouraging readers to draw their ideas and develop their own graphic language and style.

Giudizio Complessivo: 9 (scala 1-10)

Scheda compilata da: KASIŃSKA ZOFIA

Corso di Architettura e Composizione Architettonica 3 a.a.2014/2015

Sabrina Wilk is a landscape architect born in Toronto. She received her Bachelor degree in Landscape Architecture from the University of Toronto, before going on to complete her Diplom Ingenieur degree in Architecture from the Technical University of Karlsruhe under the supervision of Professor Dieter Kienast. She founded the LineScape drawing initiative in 2007 to promote and foster drawing practise and techniques within the landscape architectural professions.

Contenuto

This book is merely a starting point and only scratches the surface of this topic. The reality is that drawing in landscape architecture is much more complex and compelling than what is presented in this book. Hovewer inside, we can find a lot of inspiration and help how to draw.

CAPITOLI

Capitolo I Drawing equipment, paper and lines

In this chapter the author show equipments to draw. He also explain that drawing has big potential for creative expression, that lines can appear light or heavy, calm or dynamic- it depends of our emotions and atmosphere so always our drawing will be different. It is important that architects work with images automatically and they must know how to express their ideas.

In drawing, lines are only a method of representation, used to distinguish and identify shapes on paper.

Capitolo II Projections

In the second chapter, we can see differences between ortographic and paraller projections and perspective projections. Writer explains that landscape architects not only need to understand how projections are constructed but they also have to understand how an object or space can be change because of the projections describes and communicates different aspects. There are a lot of methods, every of them has another advantages and potential effect. It is important also to see that each projection conveys different relationship between an object, space and viewer.

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Capitolo III- The plan view and the rendition of symbols

In this chapter, writer tell us about drawings in scale, buildings, trees and vegetation, build structures, water, surfaces and materials, enliving scenes, topograpy and terrain and graphic symbols. There is important to understand that term scale refers to the proportional relationship between a real spatial dimension and its representation in a drawing so, depending on the scale, drawn elements are often subjects to a graphic simplification, reducing some elements to hightly abstracted symbols. The autor talks about working in urban and rural areas what means that design drawing involve buildings as well as topography. The important is to show connection between urban planning and shape of building and the internal organization of a building. Architects should show not only what they design, they have to remember about real view of designed area so the autor tell us how to draw realistic shadows.

Since desing project is concerned with designing outdoor spaces, they deal with a hudge variety of natural vegetation. Symbols of trees in plan can range in levels between universality and particularity even if in plan these symbols are only graphic interpretation of a real view. In our drawings, regardless of style and degree of abstraction, presenting of our project should always feature a graphic similarity and continuity of all different projections, such as plan, section and elevation.

The autor show how to draw trees in groups because it is important for the viewer to understand how the trees are arranges, how they relate to other elements in design and how their placement define space.

Architects have to remember that simple sketch techniques can only convey about plants because vegetational structure is very intricate and complex. In a sketch we can only feel an impression of abstract drawing because it is not so much detailed realism however the symbols and textures communicate just the right volume of key characteristics to indicate the plants.

The writer tells also about topography, terrain and landforms and says that it is extremely important to understand the concept of contour lines. Especially to represent and communicate vertical changes and differing levels in topography to the viewer. Each contour reperesents another level elevation above or below a common measuring point.

In the and of this chapter the autor says how to finish draw in successful way: the first point is about forms and outlines, architects have to define and communicate objects, areas and surfces in drawing. Everything need to correspond to the object itself, allowing the viewer to identify quickly what architects wanted to show.

The second point tells about lines and hierarchies. We can read that important is using stronger lines for higher, more dominant elements like trees and buildings when ground plane should be draw not so hard.

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Capitolo IV Elevation and section

In this chapter we can read about elevtion, vegetation in elevation, built structures and sections. Like the plan views, elevations are abstracted projections. The author says that it is important to construct an elevation so that the most important design contents are included in the final elevation. Sometimes it is necessary to draw more than only one elevation- in totally different directions. Architects can use the perspectives who will always communicate a spatial experience far more effectively than a projected elevation. However, a perspective can`t show a real scale. In drawings, elevation work together with another aspects so it is important to make a contrast between it and vegetations.

The author show us how to draw plants and explain that draw the plant volumes using varied and irregular outlines, never regular. Also the overlapping planes of an elevation and different advancement of details can create very interesting view.

Very important is to draw people on sketches because it is nice way to indicate scale. Architects usually do this without details, just in very simple way.

The last topic in this chapter is about section. Doing the sections architect can show the relationships of interior and exterior spaces, different uses and functions and different topography.

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Capitolo V Paraller projections

The fifth chapter says about paraline views in drawings. There are three dimentional representations which we can find in architectural presentations. These representations are constructed with tree axes- X, Y, Z with a horizontal baseline.

First of them is isonometric, who shows all free sides of an object. In isonometric paraller lines are projected with a 30 degree angle to the right and left of the horizontal baseline.

Second of them is elevation oblique where an elevation is placed on the horizontal baseline.

Third of them Is the axonometric. It is easy to construct- the plan is rotated in conjunction with a horizontal baseline, which offers another views. It`s similar like in elevator oblique- in axonometric everything is constructed with scale.

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Capitolo VI Perspective

The chapter six says about perspective in landscape architecture. The author wants to explain how important is the way how we see space. He thinks that perspective drwings offer a sensory view of a space, as opposed to the more mechanical view for exmple in paraline or ortographic projections.

He talks about linear perspective, which assumes that a viewer who is standing at the fixe position- look at the scene directly in front of him. Easy way to draw is using a prepared grid- we just have to remember that eye of the viewer is on the level 1.60m and in this way we can easy calculate a propotions and with knowledge of perspective principles, it is not hard to use perspective grids to construct and test design ideas and graphic variations.

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Capitolo VII Architectural presentations, layout and lettering

The author show to architects how to make an effective compositions. On eof the most important is to show project in the easy way- viewers must engage with it quickly and follow the hierarchy of presented information easily. They have to understand all the design process and key of project. Everything should be made with harmonious and good compositions, which communicates the main idea. Architects must remember about symmetrical layouts- it helps the viewers to read quickly what is important in project.

Capitolo VIII Lanscape architects

In this chapter the author show us examples of famous lanscape architects. One of them is the team LDA Design. They work in every scale but they develop smart and creative solutions that are shaped around economic, environmental and social objectives. For this team, it is very important to understand the place where they design, deliver requirements of the client and the needs of the community. They use a lot of drawings because they belive that hand drawing have a a central role in communicating our ideas well. For them, hand drawing is important throught its ability to communicate design though, perhaps capturing a more direct interpretation of the design ideas and the emotional creativity anv important vision of the designer. It is also a way to communicate between people.

The second one is an example of Iohrer.hochrein from Munich. They focus on on the diverse aspects of open spaces, preferring the interaction between dense urban areas and the larger landscape. They think that CAD drawings are too much precision than they are able to show in first step of designing. First they use pencil on paper- from the first concept sketch, to the communicative perspective and in the and to the development and final details. They belive that traditional drawing remains an indispensable part of drawing.

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GLOSSARIO

Drawing equipment the necessary items for a drawing, like: pencils, ink pens, markers, sketchbook.

Projections the presentation of an image on a surface which have been around since antiquity.

Scale in drawing the ratio of a distance on a map to the corresponding actual distance. Depending on the scale, drawn elements are often subject to a graphic simplificaations, reducing some elements to highly abstracted symbols.

Elevation and section a particular sides of a building. Elevations and sections are commonly found in architecture, where they are useful for communicating information about duilding fasades, vertical elements and interiors of buildings.

Paraller projections also called paraline views, are three dimensional representations which are frequently found in architectural presenttions.

Perspective perspective projections offer sensory view of a space, as opposed to the more mechanical view like paraline or ortographic projections.

Layout the way in which the parts of drwings are arranged.