Descrizione: 1311342214-thisishybrid-528x487.jpg





























This book is a theoretical and practical with a clear explanation of the relevant functions of the hybrid method. In a clear way we can find out how over the centuries, people perceived changes in the environment of the city. The book is an ideological approach to outstanding examples of utopian thinking, as well as the completed building. Most of the book is devoted to examples of hybrid buildings and their functional distributions.

What exactly means hybrid? It is mixing different forms into one. That Mixing new features are designed to improve the entirety. In this book we can see a lot of examples using hybrids in buildings. In the modern concepts of architectural and planning increasingly possible to meet the diversity, multipliers elements compilation features technologies, materials, and methods for managing objects in a way that differs from established standards, known typologies and habits. The sign of the new times becomes hybridization. In this book, we can find different types of hybrid solutions, differing in scale, character components. Also discussed are some examples, with a new aesthetic and go from the existing conventions shaping the urban environment but also outstanding environmental sensibility and the search for different types of savings in the city. Hybrid Buildings seeking unexpected, unforeseeable relationships. They also show a lot of opportunities and have their own personality, because they are the result of individual and unique creative process.


Giudizio Complessivo: 7

Scheda compilata da: Lilianna Paradowska

Corso di Architettura e Composizione Architettonica 2 a.a.2012/2013












Descrizione: at.jpg


a+t architecture publishers

a+t architecture publishers is an editorial company on architecture, independent from any institution or professional group. It was founded in 1992 by Aurora Fernández Per and Javier Mozas in Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain). Its publications are bilingual (English/Spanish) and distributed worldwide.

It publishes a+t magazine - whose issues are edited in thematic series - and books on collective housing and public space. Some of these books form part of the Density series, which became a reference for publications about collective housing worldwide.

Aurora Fernández Per Publisher Editor in Chief
Javier Mozas Editorial Advisor
Idoia Esteban Coordination
Alex S. Ollero Layout concept and illustration
Delia Argote Layout and Production
Patricia García Communication and Press

a+t research group

a+t research group is made up of the journalist Aurora Fernández Per and the architect Javier Mozas. Its aim is to spread their research on collective housing, density, mixed uses and public space through a+t architecture publishers.

The architect Alex S. Ollero is in charge of the illustrations and the design concept.




Capitolo 1 –This is hybrid

The first chapter shows us a historical approach to building mass. The examples of the United States of America, where we come across the architecture of a high, which is an important point in the  development of buildings - skyscrapers. As well as a description of the beginning of the era of hybrids as the 19th, when it began the development of technology, new materials were discovered. They tried to create something new and unique.

Hood’s premonition.

For the most historical attempts to improve human life, and at that time the vision of multi-purpose building was very unusual and utopian. The idea that in one place is all we need, was the main idea of creating. Raymond Hood in 1930 combined the big function in one unit, so that each individual can take place separately-housing, businesses, hotels, theaters.Le Corbusier criticized the then approach to architecture as a place to live burdensome. He favored his own ideal city horizontal.

The indereminate hybrid.

Non-stop city idea’s Andrea Brancia. Non-stop city as a utopian idea, related to the onset of urban development, where the public space was friendly to people. (…) The most important thing I think that is a quote Yona Friedman. Frieedman said: “cities are always beautiful. Architecture is not. Because a city is a living thing, with the variety and so on. A city was no fasade, no elevation. You have only an inside”.

The mat hybrid.

For example, the Free University of Berlin we see the mix featured on a combination of different features such as the auditorium, offices, classrooms, creating a small campus.Assumption of functionality not immediately defines a hybrid building. The largest shoping centre in North America, though its multi-functionality is a denial of the idea. Not all buildings who are having a mix of functional are hybrid buildings.

In summary:


Personality of hybrid buildings, the best shows quote: “The hybrid building as a milestone, is an actor in a starting role on the urban stage”.    


Ideal building hybrid is one where we find a private life, public life. Building working all the time. Full-time building.   


Finding the relationship between form and function. 


Building is an organism prepared for life.

The mixing of uses in a hybrid buildings generates a potencial with is transferred as in system of connected vessels, to those weaker activities so that all involved are benefited. Hybrid buildings are organism with multiple interconnected programmers prepared to house both planned activities as well as those unplanned activities in a city.”     


Scale is the relationship between the building and the environment and the juxtaposition of programmatic sections. 


Depending on large-scale urban composition depends on the building that identifies a public space.


Capitolo 2 – Hybrid versus Social Condenser

“The hybrid building is a specimen of opportunity which has the mixed-use gene in its gene code.

It turns against the combination of the usual programs and bases its whole raison d’etre on the unexpected mixing of functions. The hybrid is the consequence of a rant against tradition, giving typology the one finger salute.”

Hybrids characterized by mixing utility functions in the same project, the authors reflect on the social impact of these assumptions. The combination of a public function with a private function so as not to overlap with the disparities. Ease for the people consuming these spaces.

The best solution is to minimize the space as economical approach to architectural solutions. However, building a prototype for the 1000 inhabitans makes us self-sufficient city, despite the small space.

Distribution function is sometimes confusing, so in most of the examples replicates the same pattern.


It is difficult to choose between two different ideas, which was better? Author analyzes a hybrid between a social condenser.



-diversity of uses, including residential

-different initiatives

-insertion adapted to the urban fabric

-public uses


Social Condenser

-residential buildings with a service programme associated to the dwelings

-public initiative

-isolated location in the urban fabric

-exclusive use of the service programme by residents


“In the hybrid building the uses are set out in the section and are specified on the plan in more detail using a key. For social condensers, the service programme in set out in blue in the section, making it understood that the rest isdedicated to dweling.”






Inhabitants: 6.500

This is a result of the Second World War. The need for housing led to the formation of the complex, where you can find car park, offices, shopping, culture, civic, education and other functions.







Inhabitants: 4.000

The handicap was located on hill and separated from the so-called complex city, which was 600 meters down the hill, by the railway line. The complex of nearly 1,000 rented dwellings, equipped with services for the community became a ghetto despite the efforts of the authorities to bring the tenants together and the services stopped working.

In this complex were: play area, primary school, kindergarden, public house, shopping center, car park, chapel.


Capitolo 3 Project Index

Chapter focuses on examples of hybrid buildings and a brief description about the features in each of the examples. Here are the views, sections describing the function of each structure.

Capitolo 4 – Verticalism. The future of skyscraper

Skyscrapers began its existence in the 19th century, but until now develop their capabilities. We build higher and higher, creating buildings increasingly independent and self-sufficient. Verticalism becoming urban dominance over the space of the city.

“We are witness of a passionate  transformation process. We have just begun to think the city from positions that efficiently substitute the bi-dimensionality of urban planning for a new verticalism.”

 The author reflects on the future of high-rise buildings, which way will the expected development and  shows the most important examples of architecture of skyscrapers in the world.