DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY "LAZZARO SPALLANZANI"
(01/03/2022 - 14/06/2022)
72 lesson hours
WRITTEN AND ORAL TEST
Basic knowledge of animal and plant cell biology, chemistry and mathematics.
The aim of the course is to provide basic knowledge concerning the transmission and expression of hereditary traits in cells, individuals and populations. The course will also deal with the structural and functional features of genetic material, how genetic information is stored, coded and expressed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. At the end of the course, the student is expected to (a) understand, be able to discuss and teach basic notions of genetics and (b) to be able to carry out the typical genetic analysis that are performed in a research laboratory.
Mendel's experiments. Probability. Goodness of fit: chi-square test. Dominance and recessivity in terms of gain and loss of function. Mitosis and Meiosis. Chromosome theory of inheritance. Sex chromosomes and sex association. Nondisjunction. Karyotypes. Pedigree analysis. X inactivation. Mosaicism. Linkage and recombination. Construction of linkage maps. Three-point crosses. Map distance and physical distance. Mapping of human genes. Polytenic chromosomes. Chromosomal mutations. Gene families. Variation in chromosome number and human pathologies. Monoploidy and polyploidy. Genetic variation. Population genetics. The Hardy-Weinberg (H-W) principle. Genetic structure of populations. Nucleic acids. The DNA double helix. Genomes, chromatin and chromosomes. Unique and repetitive sequence DNA. Centromeres and telomeres. Genetic mapping in bacteria and phages: conjugation, transduction and transformation. DNA replication. The genetic analysis of metabolic pathways. Examples of altered gene pathways: sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis. Transcription. RNAs: typologies and roles; RNA processing, splicing and editing. The genetic code: identification and features. tRNAs and the wobble mechanism. Protein synthesis. Basic techniques for the analysis of nucleic acids. The PCR and its applications. Molecular markers for the analysis of genetic variability and for genetic profiling.
The course consists of lectures. However, some exercise sessions will be also organized. These sessions will be held during the course period and will allow students to practice on topics of formal, population and molecular genetics.
Reccomended or required readings
GENETICA, UN APPROCCIO MOLECOLARE. P.J. Russell. 5ed o 4ed Pearson
PRINCIPI di GENETICA, D.P. Snustad e M.J. Simmons. EDISES, Napoli (4ed o 5ed)
Texts with exercises:
Eserciziario di Genetica. Con guida alla soluzione di Daniela Ghisotti, Luca Ferrari, Editore: Piccin-Nuova Libraria.
Genetica. Quesiti e soluzioni di Silvia Ghirotto, Maria Teresa Vizzari, Feltrinelli.
There will be a single final exam for the Genetics course (there are no intermediate exams). The final exam consists of two parts. The first is a written text with exercises and questions covering formal and molecular genetics. Students who pass the written text will sustain an oral exam usually offered a few days (2-4) after the written text.
The course has a dedicated web site on the e-learning portal of the University of Pavia, Kiro, that students can access using their login credentials.