DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY "LAZZARO SPALLANZANI"
1st semester (01/10/2021 - 14/01/2022)
52 lesson hours
Students must have acquired the contents of the courses Genetics and Molecular Biology, which will be crucial to understand the topics of the present course.
The course aims to describe the recent progress of molecular biotechnology for the study and genomic characterization of simple and complex organisms, from theoretical bases to case studies and to applications in biological, agronomic, forensic and environmental fields. In the first part, the genome projects will be presented describing the new sequencing systems and other methods used for their accomplishment. In the second part, we will present the functional and comparative genomics approaches that allow the interpretation of a genomic sequence, the gene annotation and the identification of informational variants. Finally, in the last part the targeted genotyping techniques will be presented with specific application on case studies.
From biological samples to DNA. Isolation, purification and quantification of nucleic acids from different biological sources. Advantages, disadvantages and applications.De-novo sequencing and re-sequencing. Sanger sequencing. Next generation sequencing (NGS): Illumina, Ion-Torrent. Moving toward third generation sequencing. Capture and enrichment systems for target sequencing.Structural genomics. Localization and gene annotation.Functional genomics. Determination of gene function (forward genetics and reverse genetics).Genome projects: from model organisms to humans.Comparative genomics. Evolutionary models and molecular phylogenetics: from molecular data to phylogenetic classifications.Novel genotyping systems. Molecular markers and genomic analysis. Screening with microsatellites. Examples of application in forensic genetics. SNP and DNA chips. Towards a personalized Genomics. Genotyping and food traceability. Applications of molecular genetics technics in agriculture.
Face to face lessons and practical training.
Reccomended or required readings
BIOTECNOLOGIE MOLECOLARI (Principi e tecniche) Seconda edizione (Brown TA – Zanichelli).
Genomes (Brown TA – Edises).
Presentation slides will be crucial for the final exam.
Oral exam: an interview on the topics covered during the lectures and on laboratory activities.
For further information:
Sustainable development goals - Agenda 2030
Some of the
topics in this course are in line with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
Development, in particular with Goal 15 - Protect, restore and promote
sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems / halt biodiversity loss.