Basics of chemical formulas and chemical reactions
Qualitative and quantitative aspects of chemical formulas and reactions, stoichiometry, principal reaction types.
Nuclear stability, radioactive decays, kinetic of radioactive decay, natural radioactive families. Chemical and biological effects of radiations. The environmental radioactivity. Radon.
Basics of chemical bond theory
The hydrogen atom. Electronic configuration of elements and periodic properties. Ionic, covalent, polarized-covalent, coordination and metallic bonds. Molecular geometries. Dipolar moments of molecules. Intermolecular interactions: hydrogen-bond, van der Waals forces and dispersion forces. Ionic and covalent valences of elements of s, p block and first transition row. Oxides, hydrides, anions and cations, salts.
States of matter
Gaseous state: ideal gases and real gases. The ideal gas equation. Gaseous mixtures, Dalton’s law, PVT calculations. Solid state: crystalline systems, Bravais’ lattices, compact structures, reference structures for ionic salts. Covalent (diamonds, graphite, silicon, quartz), metallic and molecular crystals. Liquid state: superficial tension, adhesion and cohesion forces, wettability, vapor tension.
Thermodynamics, kinetics and chemical equilibrium
Thermodynamic state functions. Enthalpy of formation of compounds, heats of reaction, thermodynamic cycles (Hess law), reaction isotherm. The equilibrium in gaseous phase, the equilibrium constant, reaction quotient, the effect of temperature. Basics of chemical kinetics.
The measuring units of concentration: molarity, molality, w/w and w/v percent. Liquid-vapor equilibrium, the Raoult’s law. Freezing-point depression, boiling-point elevation, osmotic pressure. Solubility equilibrium (solubility product). Acid-base equilibrium, definition of pH, pH of strong and weak acids and basis. Hydrolysis of anions and cations. Buffer solutions.
Phase state diagram of water. Thermal analysis of alloys. Eutectic diagrams and diagrams with total and partial solubility in the solid phase.
Electrode potentials and basics of batteries. Standard electrochemical potentials, Nernst equation. Corrosion phenomena of metals, passivation, corrosion protection. Batteries and accumulators in everyday use. Electrolysis.
Tecnology and materials
Organic and inorganic compounds related to practical applications: Cements, lime, hydraulic lime, plaster, geopolymers.
Basics of Organic Chemistry
Hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes and aromatic compounds. Funcional groups and main properties of alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amines, amides and amino acids.
Structure and composition of atmosphere. The pollution due to nitrogen oxides, sulfur, hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, ozone, solid particles. Pollutants of air, water and soil. In particular VOCs, PAH, PCB, endocrine disruptors, heavy metals. Main degradative pathways of organic pollutants.