DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY "LAZZARO SPALLANZANI"
EXPERIMENTAL AND APPLIED BIOLOGY
Scienze biomediche molecolari
1st semester (01/10/2021 - 14/01/2022)
72 lesson hours
To best appreciate the course content is necessary that the student know the biochemical reactions and structure of the principal biomolecules.
At the end of this course the student will be able to understand biochemical mechanisms of the principal hormones and signal transduction. the integrated knowledge aquired will then allow the student to correlate how dysfunctions in single organs and cells results in severe pathologies of the entire organism. Also, studying the biochemistry of the blood the student will be able to critically analyse the molecular mechanisms that drive systemic disorders.
Part 1. Glucose homeostasis: metabolic response in diabetes. Principles and biochemical assessment of hormone action. The hypothalamo-pituitary system. Hormones from thyroid, adrenal cortex and medulla, gonads. Eicosanoids. Major types of endocrine pathology. Structure and function of collagens, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans. The plasma proteins and their biomedical importance; free and esterified cholesterol; intestinal absorption of cholesterol; bile acids. Haemostasis; the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin; thrombin; the role of platelets; the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway, anticoagulants; fibrinolysis. Hormone receptors. Intracellular and cell-surface receptors. G-protein coupled receptors and their effectors and second messangers: 1. cAMP/PKA. PLC: DAG, IP3 and calcium; 3. PI3K. Receptor tyrosine kinases: mechanism of activation and regulation. Signaling downstream Insulin. Receptor for cytokines, the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Role of NO and cGMP/PKG in signaling. Interaction and regulation of signaling pathways.
Part 2. Calibration curve. Analytical error: precision, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Instrumentation and analytical test: spectrophotometric fluorimetric and luminometric techniques, SDS-PAGE and agarose electrophoresis, immunochemical methods (RIA, ELISA). Plasma proteins, lipoproteins and risk of atherosclerosis. Diagnostic enzymology.
Frontal lectures and dedicated seminars. Practical exercitations are not provided.
Reccomended or required readings
lecture notes and teaching materials
Sustainable development goals - Agenda 2030