The course aim to provide the fundamentals of chemistry and chemical-physics useful for the comprehension of materials structure-activity relationship. In particular, students will be able to predict the products of inorganic reactions starting from reagents. Moreover, thermodynamic will be used to predict the heat of reaction and the spontaneity. In this way the student should be able to predict if the reaction occurs or not.
Basics of chemical formulas and chemical reactions
Qualitative and quantitative aspects of chemical formulas and reactions, stoichiometry, principal reaction types
Nuclear stability, radioactive decays, kinetic of radioactive decay, natural radioactive families. Chemical and biological effects of radiations. The environmental radioactivity. Radon.
Basics of chemical bond theory
The hydrogen atom. Electronic configuration of elements and periodic properties. Ionic, covalent, polarized-covalent, coordination and metallic bonds. Molecular geometries. Dipolar moments of molecules. Intermolecular interactions: hydrogen-bond, van der Waals forces and dispersion forces. Ionic and covalent valences of elements of s, p block and first transition row. Oxides, hydrides, anions and cations, salts. Basics of organic chemistry.
States of matter
Gaseous state: ideal gases and real gases. The ideal gas equation. Gaseous mixtures, Dalton’s law, PVT calculations. Solid state: crystalline systems, Bravais’ lattices, compact structures, reference structures for ionic salts. Covalent (diamond, graphite, silicon, quartz), metallic and molecular crystals. Liquid crystals. Liquid state: surface tension, adhesion and cohesion forces, wettability, vapor tension.
Thermodynamics, kinetics and chemical equilibrium
Thermodynamic state functions. Enthalpy of formation of compounds, heats of reaction, thermodynamic cycles (Hess law), reaction isotherm. The equilibrium in gaseous phase, the equilibrium constant, reaction quotient, the effect of physical variables. Basics of chemical kinetics.
The measuring units of concentration: molarity, molality, w/w and w/v percent. Liquid-vapor equilibrium, the Raoult’s law. Freezing-point depression, boiling-point elevation, osmotic pressure. Solubility equilibrium (solubility product). Acid-base equilibrium, definition of pH, pH of strong and weak acids and basis. Hydrolysis of anions and cations. Buffer solutions.
Phase state diagram of water. Thermal analysis of alloys. Eutectic diagrams and diagrams with total and partial solubility in the solid phase.
Electrode potentials and basics of batteries. Standard electrochemical potentials, Nernst equation. Corrosion phenomena of metals, passivation, corrosion protection. Batteries and accumulators in everyday use. Electrolysis.
Polymeric materials and structure/property relationship. Metals and ferrous alloys: steel, cast iron, the Fe/C diagram. Thermal treatments. Ceramic materials.
Reccomended or required readings
Didactic material fiven by the lecturer.
D. Dondi e L. Vasta. Chimica: principi e applicazioni . Universitas Studiorum.
website for self evaluation: http://www-5.unipv.it/dondi/ .
website with exercises done: https://sites.google.com/site/dondidaniele/ .