MED/07 (MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY)
DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY "LAZZARO SPALLANZANI"
(01/10/2021 - 14/01/2022)
24 lesson hours
To study the teaching of Medical Microbiology and Virology, integrated with Immunology, it is recommended to have passed the 2nd year General Microbiology exam.
In order to better follow the course, the student should have attended the Cytology, Histology, Human Anatomy, Biochemistry, Genetics and Physiology courses.
The course aims to provide students with the knowledge to understand the morphological and structural characteristics of microorganisms and viruses, the host-pathogen interaction, the methodological approach in the diagnostic assessment of infectious diseases and the role of the main infectious agents in human pathology.
At the end of the course the student is expected to be able to know and understand the fundamental biological characteristics of bacteria and viruses and to know the main methods of microbiological and virological analysis (direct and indirect methods).
The student will also be able to illustrate the main investigation techniques used in traditional and advanced diagnostics in the microbiological and virological field.
Epidemiological aspects of infectious diseases. Microorganisms and viruses of bio-health interest. Prions. Routes of transmission of infectious agents (horizontal and vertical transmission). Zoonoses. Bacteria: size, shape, grouping. Review of the structure of the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell.
Accessory components of prokaryotic cells. Bacterial biofilms.
Host-pathogen interaction, pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, iceberg concept, pathogenic action of bacteria (structural and secretory elements).
Microbiota of the human body.
Method of collecting, from various anatomical sites, clinical samples for microbiological analysis and their proper storage. Appropriateness of the microbiological sample.
Diagnosis of infectious diseases. Direct diagnostic approach: microscopic examination and staining methods, culture examination and cultivation methods of bacteria (solid and liquid media; enriched, differential and selective media), diagnostics with manual / automated systems, detection of microbial macromolecules, identification of bacteria, methods evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity to antibacterial drugs (antibiogram, MIC, MBC). Indirect or serological diagnostic approach.
General characteristics of the main bacteria of medical interest.
Viruses of bio-health interest.
Structure and composition of animal viruses.
Classification (ICTV and Baltimore) and replication of animal viruses.
Pathogenesis of viral infections (virus transmission routes, interferon system, virus-cell interaction, localized and disseminated infections).
Viral infection diagnostics: direct (virological investigations) and indirect (serological investigations) diagnosis. Viral isolation and identification techniques.
Herpesviruses, Viruses responsible for hepatitis, Retroviruses, Ortomixovirus.
Fungi: definition, structure of the fungal cell.
The course includes lectures.
The teacher is available for clarifications about the topics covered in class, by appointment to be booked (via email).
Reccomended or required readings
Microbiologia Medica-P.R.Murray-K.S.Rosenthal-M.A.Pfaller -Ed.Elsevier
Microbiologia Medica-Sherris-Ed. EMSI
The didactic material presented in class will be provided.
The exam consists of a written test structured in two questions with written answers and five questions (definitions to be written or multiple choice questions).
Examination Commission of the integrated course:
Prof.ssa Monica Savio
Prof.ssa Francesca Zara
Prof. Elisabetta Nucleo
Sustainable development goals - Agenda 2030
Goal 1: No poverty
Goal 2: Zero hunger
Goal 3: Good health and well-being
Goal 4: Quality education
Goal 5: Gender equality
Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy
Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth
Goal 9: Industry, innovation and infrastructure
Goal 10: Reduced inequalities
Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities
Goal 12: Responsible consumption and production
Goal 13: Climate action
Goal 14: Life below water
Goal 15: Life on Land
Goal 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions
Goal 17: Partnerships for the goalsThe goals