The course aims to provide the student with the cognitive and methodological tools necessary to know the classification, structure and genetics of microorganisms, to apply the knowledge of the biology of microorganisms to the choice of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases, to understand the role of different microorganisms in human disease (infectious diseases), to learn the methodological approach in diagnostic investigation of infectious disease and their epidemiology.
In order to understand the onset of infectious diseases, will be discussed some of the major mechanisms of bacterial genes replication, expression and transfer (transformation, conjugation, transduction and transposition).
The ability to direct therapy specifically at a disease-causing infectious agent is unique to the management of infectious diseases. The spectrum and mode of action of antimicrobials on bacteria will be a focus of some lessons; the main target sites for antibacterial action and mechanisms of drug resistance (eg methicillin- and vancomycin- resistance; extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase production) will be addressed. Traditional and automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria, and how to use international guidelines ( eg EUCAST) will be discussed.
The most important bacterial pathogens like Staphylococci, Streptococci, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Legionella spp. and will be detailed in structure, epidemiology, pathogenesis, manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, prevention.
Fungal infections pose some of the most difficult diagnostic and therapeutic problems in infectious disease, particularly among immunocompromised patients. A purpose of the course will be also to give an overview of the pathogenesis of fungal infections, starting from the morphology and structure of the fungal cell, and concluding with the description of the correct use of antifungal agents.
Introduction to Microbiology. Prokariote and eukaryote cells: the major features of cellular organization. Structure of the bacterial cell (nucleoid, extrachromosomal elements, ribosomes, cytoplasmic inclusions, plasma membrane, cell wall, capsule, pili, flagella, fimbriae). The bacterial growth curve and cell division. Mutations and gene transfer (transformation, conjugation, transduction and transposition). Endospores. Bacterial pathogenesis, virulence factors, sites of entry, shedding and exit of medically important bacteria. Microbiota. Host-microrganism relationships, pathogens, opportunistic pathogens, primary pathogens. Collection, storage and transport of biological samples. Laboratory diagnosis: specimen processing (microscopy, isolation, identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing). Direct methods (microscopy, biochemical properties of microorganisms grown in culture, detection process for microbial antigens, nucleic acids or metabolic products) and serological methods. The automation in Microbiology. Antimicrobial agents: classification and main target sites for antibacterial action. Laboratory tests for antibiotic susceptibility: diffusion and dilution tests. Mechanisms of drug resistance. Identification of methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant bacteria; screening of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases producers.
Staphylococci, Streptococci, Mycobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae,
Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Neisseria, Chlamydia, Clostridium, Legionelle, Spirochetes: classification, main properties, pathogenesis, diseases and Laboratory diagnosis.
Morphology and structure of the fungal cell. Major fungal infections in humans. Antifungal agents.
Basic terminology. Intestinal, urogenital, blood and tissue protozoa: main characteristics (life cycle, diseases).
Jawetz, Melnick, Adelberg. Medical Microbiology. 25th edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Pfaller MA. Medical Microbiology, 6th edition, Elsevier.
Sherris-Ryan KJ, Ray CG. Medical Microbiology, 5th edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Commission: Prof. Zara, Prof. Baldanti, Prof. Migliavacca, Dr. Piralla.