SECONDO SEMESTRE (05/03/2018 - 08/06/2018)
8 ore di attività frontale
Basic concepts of immunology would be required
The course aims to provide the student with the concepts and methodological tools required to:

1) understand the structure and life cycle of viruses as well as viral evolution
2) know the mechanisms of host immune responses to viral infections
3) understand the pathogenesis of viral infections
4) understand the methodological approaches in diagnostic investigation of infectious diseases
5) understand the epidemiology of infections
6) approach the therapeutic strategies in virus infection

Specific objectives
In reference to the aim of learning the structure and physiology of microorganisms, the student should be able to describe:

the distinctive characteristics between prokaryotes, eukaryotes and viruses. The biological, chemical and physical properties of viruses. The principles of viral taxonomy.

The structure of viruses and their replicative cycle.

The bases of viral genetic variability and the principles of viral evolution.

The interaction virus-host and mechanisms of disease.

The basic concepts of virological diagnosis.

In reference to the aim of learning the mechanisms of pathogenesis of viral disease, the student should be able to define:

The viral infection phases and consequences of cellular damage in the evolution of the infection in acute, persistent, chronic and neoplastic disease.

The immunity to viral infections. The indirect damage caused by the host immune system.

In reference to the aim of learning the biological basis of the methods of infectious diseases control, the student should be able to describe:

The direct diagnostic methods (virus isolation, virus antigens or nucleic acids detection).

The indirect diagnostic methods (specific IgM and IgG, ELISPOT).

The methods to evaluate genetic variability and to identify drug resistance-associated mutations.

In reference to the aim of learning the role of different microorganisms in human pathology, the student should be able to:

Know the life cycle of several viruses in detail; the virulence properties and associated diseases;
understand the epidemiology of infections;
know which samples should be collected and basic assays that should be performed for identification;
be familiar with the therapeutic and preventive strategies.

Viruses: poxvirus, herpes virus, adenovirus, papovavirus, parvovirus, paramyxovirus, influenza virus, rabies virus, reovirus, rotavirus, rubella virus, arbovirus, hemorrhagic fever viruses, coronavirus, picornavirus, viruses causing hepatitis, human retroviruses.
- the viral particle
- Virus(es) life cycle: the central dogma rivisited
- Virus classification
- Specific and nonspecific immune responses
- Molecular mechanisms of disease
- Virological diagnosis
- Therapy to viral infections
- Viral hepatitis
- Viral respiratory infections
- Gastrointestinal viral infections
- Opportunistic infections in immuncompromised patients
- Viruses and tumors
- Emerging viruses
Interactive lessons

Internship in Microbiology

Clinical microbiology is a discipline aimed at the study, diagnosis and therapy of human diseases caused by microorganisms.

The objective of the internship in Microbiology and Virology is to gain knowledge of the diagnostic approaches, to provide guidelines for targeted therapy for infectious diseases and to develop prevention strategies.

The main role of the Microbiology Unit is to:
- identify the microorganism causing the infection;
- determine the correct identification at the species level;
- select an appropriate array of drugs to be tested;
- evaluate the sensibility according to the therapy-oriented criteria.

It will be held at the Microbiology Unit, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, Viale Brambilla 74, and at the Molecular Virology Unit, Microbiology and Virology Department, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo. It will last for 2 weeks.

The request form for the internship in microbiology must be completed, signed and returned to the Microbiology Unit Secretary, Viale Brambilla 74, Pavia.

The Microbiology ADI takes place in the context of the Interactive Tutorial in Microbiology project.

The knowledge of the microbiological diagnostic criteria and problems is essential in medical training. The students will improve their clinical training through the use of Computer Tutorial; GramStain TUTOR, developed by the Department of Laboratory Medicine at the University of Washington, will provide students with the elements to gain the interpretation and clinical utility of the Gram’s Method. The features for this Tutorial (animation presentation, easy to use, clear and concise explanations) will allow students to achieve a rapid and reasoned learning.

Internship in Microbiology (1 CFU). The interpretative reading of the antibiogram: natural and acquired bacterial resistance, microbiological and clinical breakpoints, chosen by the student. 20 places.
A slide set of each lesson will be provided.

Sherris Medical Microbiology, 6e
Kenneth J. Ryan, C. George Ray.
Copyright © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education, Inc.

Medical Microbiology-P.R.Murray-K.S.Rosenthal-M.A.Pfaller-Ed.Elsevier
The exam commission consists of Profs. Laura Pagani (President), Fausto Baldanti, Francesca Zara, Roberta Migliavacca, Elisabetta Nucleo.

The exam registration for students of the 18 T.E.R course must be done by sending an e-mail at:, no later than the deadline for registration to other courses.

The exam is written for the LM41 course. The exams will take place in locations reported in the same area dedicated to the exam registration.

For the 46S and 18 TER courses, the exam is oral and it will take place in the Microbiology Unit, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences,Viale Brambila 74.

Exam procedure: For the LM41 course, the exam will involve the evaluation of the Microbiology and Virology modules. Both modules will consist of multiple-choice questions (16 for Microbiology and 8 for Virology) and 1 open question. The final vote will be the average of the votes obtained in the 2 modules. The exam is approved if, in both modules, the vote is at least 18/30. The multiple-choice questions will be assessed as follows:
1 point (correct answer of Microbiology)
2 points (correct answer of Virology)
0 point (wrong answer or if no answer).
Open questions will be assessed 14 points each. The time available to perform the exam will be 1 hour 30 minutes.

Results: the votes of the written exam are available on the website (online registration), clicking 30. Registration of the vote: votes will be registered according to the ESSE3 system.